Everglade National Park

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Chapter 3. SITE DESCRIPTION

Flora

Brief description of the main plant assemblages significant or particular in the area:


Sawrass and broad-leafed marsh plants dominate the freshwater sloughs; benthic algae and other microscopic organisms that form periphyton dominate the freshwater marl prairies as does other grasses, such as muhly grass (Muhlenbergia filipes) and broadleafed water plants; Large southern live oaks (Quercus virginiana) dominate the tropical hammocks with other trees such wild tamarind (Lysiloma latisiliquum) and gumbo-limbo (Bursera simaruba) also being present in abundance. Trees often form canopies under which animals thrive amongst scrub bushes of wild coffee (Psychotria), white indigoberry (Randia aculeata), poisonwood (Metopium toxiferum) and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) in this area.
The shallow, dry sandy loam over a limestone substrate is covered almost exclusively by slash pines (Pinus elliottii var. densa) in the pineland area. Cypress trees and three species of mangrove trees—red (Rhizophora mangle), black (Avicennia germinans), and white (Laguncularia racemosa)—can be found in the Everglades. These trees are ecologically important, providing protective habitat for a variety of species of birds and fish (within their prop roots). Few trees can survive in the conditions of the coastal lowlands, but plants—succulents like saltwort and glasswort— tolerate salt, brackish water, and desert conditions of this area. Submerged aquatic vegetation (seagrasses) such as turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum), manatee grass (syrigodium filiforme), shoal grass (Halodule wrightii), and wigeongrass (Ruppia maritima) thrive in the shallow waters of Florida Bay and are ecologically important as nursery areas for a variety of fish and invertebrates.

List of plant species within the site that are in SPAW Annex I

List of species in SPAW annex I Estimate of population size Comments if any

List of plant species within the site that are in SPAW Annex III

List of species in SPAW annex III Estimate of population size Comments if any
Compositae : Laguncularia racemosa not given Cypress trees and three species of mangrove trees—white
Cymodoceaceae: Halodule wrightii not given Submerged aquatic vegetation (seagrasses) such as shoal grass
Hydrocharitaceae: Thalassia testudinum not given Submerged aquatic vegetation (seagrasses) such as turtle grass
Rhizophoraceae: Rhizophora mangle not given Cypress trees and three species of mangrove trees—red
Ruppiaceae: Ruppia maritima not given Submerged aquatic vegetation (seagrasses) such as wigeongrass
Verbenaceae: Avicennia germinans not given Cypress trees and three species of mangrove trees-black

List of plant species within the site that are in the IUCN Red List. UICN red list : http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/search You will specify the IUCN Status (CR:critically endangered; EN:endangered; VU:vulnerable).

List of species in IUCN red list that are present in your site IUCN Status Estimate of population size Comments if any
Muhlenbergia: filipes EN - Endangered not given Muhly grass
Psychotria: nervosa EN - Endangered not given Wild coffe
Pinus: elliottii VU - Vulnerable not given Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii var. densa)
Rhizophora: mangle Unknown not given Mangrove tree red
Avicennia: germinans Unknown not given Black mangrove
Laguncularia: racemosa Unknown not given Mangrove tree white
Thalassia: testudinum Unknown not given Turtle grass
Halodule: wrightii Unknown not given Shoal grass
Ruppia: maritima Unknown not given Wigeongrass - Beaked Tasselweed

List of plant species within the site that are in the national list of protected species

List of species in the national list of protected species that are present in your site Estimate of population size Comments if any

Fauna

Brief descript° of the main fauna populations and/or those of particular importance present (resident or migratory) in the area:


Everglades National Park contains a rich biodiversity and is home to
*(a) 36 threatened or protected species including the iconic Florida panther, American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus), and West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus);
*(b) 350 species of birds including a variety of colorful waders such as herons, egrets, roseate spoonbills (Platalea ajaja), ibises and brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis);
*(c) 300 species of ecologically, recreationally, and/or commercially important fresh and saltwater fish such as the yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus), black grouper (Mycteroperca bonaci), and king mackerel (Scomberomorus caualla);
*(d) 40 species of mammals including the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus);
*(e) and 50 species of reptiles including 4 species of sea turtles. A Certified Species List for All Taxonomic Categories in Everglades National Park (Aug. 8, 2012) is attached as an annex for review.

List of animal species within the site that are in SPAW Annex II

List of species in SPAW annex II Estimate of population size Comments if any
Reptiles: Crocodylus acutus not given American crocodile
Birds: Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis not given
Mammals: Tursiops truncatus not given Bottlenose dolphin
Mammals: Trichechus manatus not given West Indian manatee

List of animal species within the site that are in SPAW Annex III

List of species in SPAW annex III Estimate of population size Comments if any

List of animal species within the site that are in the IUCN Red List. IUCN Red List : http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/search You will specify the IUCN Status (CR:critically endangered; EN:endangered; VU:vulnerable).

List of species in IUCN red list that are present in your site IUCN Status Estimate of population size Comments if any
Crocodylus: acutus VU - Vulnerable not given American crocodile
Trichechus : manatus VU - Vulnerable not given West Indian manatee
Platalea: ajaja Unknown not given Roseate spoonbills
Pelecanus: occidentalis Unknown not given Braun pelican
Mycteroperca: bonaci Unknown not given Black grouper
Tursiops: truncatus Unknown not given Bottlenose dolphin

List of animal species within the site that are in the national list of protected species

List of species in the national list of protected species that are present in your site Estimate of population size Comments if any