Sanctuaire Agoa

Note: The data were entered in the language of the country of origin (English, French or Spanish) and there is no translation available yet.

Chapter 3. SITE DESCRIPTION

d - Human population and current activities

Inhabitants inside the area or in the zone of potential direct impact on the protected area:


Inside the area In the zone of potential direct impact
Permanent Seasonal Permanent Seasonal
Inhabitants not given not given 849365 3442669

Comments about the previous table:


On January 1st, 2010, the population of Martinique is estimated to 399 637 inhabitants and welcomed 620 781 tourists, the same year. According to the last demographic balance sheet of INSEE (NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR STATISTICS AND ECONOMIC STUDIES), the Guadeloupian population is estimated to 404 394 inhabitants on January 1st, 2010. Guadeloupe welcomed approximately 390 000 tourists the same year. In 2008, the population of Saint Martin French side counted 36 661 inhabitants, increasing by 23,4 % compared with 1999. The population of Sint-Maarten in 2010 is estimated to 37 429 persons. In 2010, both territories welcomed no less than 2 150 616 tourists. In 2008, the population of Saint-Barthélemy counted 8 673 inhabitants and in 2010 Saint-Barthélemy welcomed a total of 281 272 visitors. The Agoa sanctuary has a population of approximately 849 365 inhabitants and welcomes 3 442669 visitors / year.

Description of population, current human uses and development:


 

 

MAIN THREATS

 

HUMAN ACTIVITIES

 

IMPACTS ON ANIMALS

 

Persistent disturbance

 

Military activities


Watercraft
competition


Professional Fishing


Seismic surveys

Scientific research


Maritime traffic (commercial and recreational)


Whale watching

 

 

Desertion of habitats


Increased energy expenditure


Decline in reproduction


Disruption of vital activities and social ties

 

Serious injury to the inner ear


Malfunction of the echolocation system

Behavioral changes

Death of the animal

 

 

Vessel strikes

 

Military activities


Watercraft competition

Professional Fishing

Recreational boat

 

Scientific research


Maritime traffic (commercial and recreational)


Whale watching

 

Injuries

Death of the animal

Chimical pollution

Antropiques activities of terrigenous origin (industry, agriculture, assinissements failed, careening areas ...)

Offshore Piling
Oil dumping, hydrocarbon leaks, tanker accident ...

Sailing (antifouling paints, waste oils, hydrocarbons ...)

 

Immune capabilities and reproductices affected can lead to death of the animal, tumors ...

Intoxication (hydrocarbons)

 

Physiological dysfunction (nervous system)

Poisoning newborn

 Endocrine disruption

 

 

Bacterial pollution

 

Sailing (direct discharge of sinks and WC

 

domestic wastewater discharge

 

 

 

Developpement of diseases

Large waste

 

Terrestrial human activities

Recreational boat

Professional Fishing

 Maritime traffic (commercial and recreational)

 

Injuries

Death by entanglement or intestinal obstruction

Physical degradation and modification of the environment

Development offshore and inshore

 

Desertion of habitats

Acoustic pollution

Military activities

Coastal activities

Watercraft competition

Seismic surveys

Scientific research

Maritime trafic

 

Serious injury to the inner ear


Malfunction of the echolocation system


Behavioral changes

 

Death of the animal


Temporary or permanent hearing loss

 

 

Mortality and direct injuries

Depredation phenomenon

Accidental take

 

 

Injuries

Death of the animal

 

Competition for prey

Commercial fishing

Recreational fishery

Time quotas for increased foraging

Activities Current human uses Possible development Description / comments, if any
Tourism very important increase
Fishing significant increase
Agriculture significant stable
Industry significant stable
Forestry absent stable
Others not specified not specified

e - Other relevant features

Several recent studies allowed us to list, characterize and locate potential and ascertained anthropogenic pressures on marine mammals and their habitat within the sanctuary. (Annex anthropogenic pressures)

According to these researches, the issues of all the anthropogenic pressures on marine mammal within Agoa can be summarized as follows :

- Issues related to the survival of animals: collisions, illnesses caused by stress or contaminants, entanglement, ingestion of macro-waste and noise pollution are so many threats that face directly marine mammals.

- Issues related to animals growth : low energy balance caused by a nutritional deficiency or by an energy expenditure related to a repetitive disturbance (maritime traffic, whale watching); leakage from feeding areas …

- Issues related to the reproduction and birth rate: which can be reduced by the disease, the disturbances, a low energy balance, a contamination by pollutants and chemical molecules....

- Issues related to the environment: which can be threatened by coastal developments and marine pollution.

Scientific feature:


In Guadeloupe, current knowledge mainly concern sperm whales, thanks to a photo-identification catalog made by AET in the leeward coast for 15 years. Since 2007, monitoring campaign using transects line protocol, combining visual observations and acoustic detections, are conducted by Breach in the dry season and wet season since 2009. These campaigns cover the entire coastal area up to about 12 NM offshore. In Martinique, the relative abundance and distribution of cetaceans in territorial waters are followed by SEPANMAR since five years of field campaigns in wet and dry seasons, combining visual observations and acoustic detections. The protocols used in Martinique and Guadeloupe are a priori the same since 2009. Since 2012, the antenna of the French marine protected areas Agency in the French Antilles and the technical secretariat of the Agoa sanctuary coordinate the scientific activities in collaboration with governments and local associations. From March 9th to 14th, the Agoa scientific campaign 2012, directed by the French marine protected areas Agency, in collaboration with the SPAW RAC, and the associations Breach and Sepanmar, has initiated an extensive exploration of marine mammals but also birds, waste, vessels and all anthropogenic activities, in all the French Antilles and the Netherlands Antilles with the islands of Sint-Maarten, Saba and St. Eustatius and also the island of Anguilla. First conducted in the "Northern Islands", it continued from April 9th to 15th in Guadeloupe and Martinique was completed in April 30th. More than 10 species were observed in less than two months of observation. Cetacean acoustic recordings were made??, as well as some unidentified noise that can be described as disturbing to cetaceans. The results of this campaign will be available before the end of 2012.